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Scorziello, A., O. Meucci, et al. (1997). "Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginine Amide Prevents Beta 25-35-Induced Neurotoxicity in Cerebellar Granule Cells." Neurochem Res 22(3): 257-265.

Cerebellar granule cells (CGC) at different stages of maturation in vitro (1 or 6 DIV), were treated with beta 25-35 and acetyl-L-carnitine arginine amide (ST857) in presence of 25 mM KCl in the culture medium, and neuronal viability was assessed. Three days of treatment slightly modified the survival of 1 DIV-treated cells, which degenerate and die five days later beta-amyloid matching. Similarly, a significative neurotoxic effect was observed on 6 DIV treated-cells after 5 days of exposure to the peptide, while the death occurred within 8 days. ST857 coincubated with beta 25-35 was able to rescue neurons from beta 25-35-induced neurotoxicity. We also studied the changes in Ca2+ homeostasis following glutamate stimulation, in control and beta-amyloid treated single cells, either in presence or in absence of ST857. beta 25-35 did not affect basal [Ca2+]i, while modified glutamate-induced [Ca2+]i increase, causing a sustained plateau phase of [Ca2+]i, that persisted after the removal of the agonist. ST857 pretreatment completely reverted this effect suggesting that, in CGC chronically treated with beta 25-35, ST857 could protect the cells by neurotoxic insults of the peptide likely interfering with the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of Ca2+ homeostasis.